Employment Service & Public Training



For more than 75 years, the federal government has operated a public labor exchange—the Employment Service (ES)—to help reemploy individuals who have lost their jobs. Since the 1962 Manpower Development and Training Act of 1962, the government has funded job training to further assist in the mission of re-employing individuals by providing them with marketable skills.


  • How effective is the Employment Service?
  • What types of reemployment services work best for what types of workers?
  • What are the rates of return to public sector training programs?
  • Does training work for dislocated workers?

Selected Institute Research

A Methodology for Setting State and Local Regression-Adjusted Performance Targets for Workforce Investment Act Programs
Randall W. Eberts, Wei-Jang Huang, and Jing Cai, Upjohn Institute
Upjohn Institute Working Paper No. 13-189

Return on Investment in Workforce Development Programs
Kevin Hollenbeck, Upjohn Institute
Upjohn Institute Working Paper No. 12-188

Workforce Investment Act (WIA) Net Impact Estimates and Rates of Return
Kevin Hollenbeck, Upjohn Institute
Paper and presentation at EC-Sponsored Conference on “What the European Social Fund Can Learn from the WIA Experience” Washington, DC, November 2009

Job Training Policy in the United States
Christopher O’Leary, Upjohn Institute, editor
Robert Straits, Upjohn Institute, editor
Stephen A. Wandner,U.S. Dept. of Labor, Employment and Training Administration, editor
Upjohn Institute Press, 2004

Job Training That Gets Results: Ten Principles of Effective Employment Programs
Michael Bernick, HNTB Corporation
Upjohn Institute Press, 2005

More Institute Research about Employment Service & Public Training

Useful Links

USDOL Employment and Training Administration (USDOL ETA)